Bluefield Daily Telegraph, Bluefield, WV

Breaking News

Slate

March 5, 2013

Can eyes see outside of the head?

PITTSBURGH — Recently, we have witnessed remarkable, fictional-sounding advancements in science and medicine. There's a guy who can hear color, another with a bionic eye attached to his brain, and a woman fighting back against the debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis by placing electrodes on her tongue. But for our next trick, we're going to need a bucket of tadpoles with eyes on their butts and some good old-fashioned alternating current. In other words, things are about to get all kinds of weird.

There's a great deal of wow to unpack here, so let's take it piece by piece. Using embryos from the African clawed frog (Xenopus), scientists at Tufts' Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology were able to transplant eye primordia — basically, the little nubs of flesh that will eventually grow into an eye — from one tadpole's head to another's posterior, flank or tail. They don't play around with nerve endings or "wiring" or anything like that. They just cut out the cells from the head, slice open a bit of the tail, and jam them in.

As the eyes grow, they send out snaking tendrils of nerve fiber, or axons. We know this because the "tissue donor" tadpoles — a term that makes it sound like they had a choice — were injected with tdTomato, a fluorescent red protein. This allowed the researchers to watch innervation, or nerve growth, as it happened. Of those eye primordia that sent out feelers, nearly half hardwired directly into the spine, while the other half built connections to the nearby stomach. None of the tadpoles grew tdTomato-marked pathways to the brain.

Before they could test the ectopic eyes however, the native ones had to be severed and removed. Otherwise, how would the scientists know which of the tadpole's three eyes was truly seeing? (Note: Severing optical nerves sounds like nasty business, but even these partially-developed tadpoles received anesthesia via fish sedative. Wounds healed completely within 24 hours.)

Text Only
Slate
  • Cuba is running out of condoms

    The newest item on Cuba's list of dwindling commodities is condoms, which are now reportedly in short supply. In response, the Cuban government has approved the sale of expired condoms.

    April 23, 2014

  • Cats outsmart the researchers

    I knew a lot had been written about dogs, and I assumed there must be at least a handful of studies on cats. But after weeks of scouring the scientific world for someone - anyone - who studied how cats think, all I was left with was this statement, laughed over the phone to me by one of the world's top animal cognition experts, a Hungarian scientist named Ádám Miklósi.

    April 23, 2014

  • The top 12 government programs ever

    Which federal programs and policies succeed in being cost-effective and targeting those who need them most? These two tests are obvious: After all, why would we spend taxpayers' money on a program that isn't worth what it costs or helps those who do not need help?

    April 23, 2014

  • Do White Castle prices tell us anything about the minimum wage?

    The paper looked at how many delicious steamed sliders the minimum wage has been able to purchase over time. The point is that as it notes, in 1981, the $3.35 minimum could buy a whole dozen. Today, at $7.25, it could purchase just 10.

    April 22, 2014

  • Do your genes make you procrastinate?

    Procrastinators, in my experience, like nothing better than explaining away their procrastination: General busyness, fear of failure, and simple laziness are just a handful of the excuses and theories often tossed around. Now researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder have added another option to the list: genetics.

    April 22, 2014

  • The case for separate beds

    The other night I slept on a twin bed in the guest room of the house I share with my husband and our two kids.
    It was the best night's sleep I've had in years.

    April 18, 2014

  • Allergies are the real midlife crisis

    One of the biggest mysteries is why the disease comes and goes, and then comes and goes again. People tend to experience intense allergies between the ages of 5 and 16, then get a couple of decades off before the symptoms return in the 30s, only to diminish around retirement age.

    April 16, 2014

  • treadmill-very-fast.jpg Tax deduction for a gym membership?

    April marks another tax season when millions of Americans will deduct expenses related to home ownership, children and education from their annual tax bill. These deductions exist because of their perceived value to society; they encourage behaviors that keep the wheels of the economy turning. So why shouldn't the tax code be revised to reward preventive health?

    April 15, 2014 1 Photo

  • Boston doctors can now prescribe you a bike

    The City of Boston this week is rolling out a new program that's whimsically known as "Prescribe-a-Bike." Part medicine, part welfare, the initiative allows doctors at Boston Medical Center to write "prescriptions" for low-income patients to get yearlong memberships to Hubway, the city's bike-share system, for only $5.

    April 11, 2014

  • A man with amnesia taught us how memories become personal

    Although not as celebrated as the late American amnesiac H.M., for my money K.C. taught us more important and poignant things about how memory works. He showed how we make memories personal and personally meaningful. He also had a heck of a life story.

    April 7, 2014

AP Video
Business Marquee
College Sports
Pro Sports
Facebook