If prosecutors can prove in court that that Youssef is Nakoula is Bacile or Bacily, the situation would seem fairly straightforward. He violated terms of parole. Back to jail.
But like the very Middle East conflict into which the man has thrust himself, little is "straightforward" about this situation, including his legal predicament and its implications for free expression in the U.S.
Youssef's prosecution for violating parole conditions seems to have moved extraordinarily quickly in comparison to the usual pace in such cases.
Some claim the White House is pushing the case "through the back door" to do what it cannot do openly: punish Youssef for producing a film that U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called "disgusting and reprehensible."
As for Youssef's potential violations, such prosecutions take place every day. If federal officials had not reacted, it's likely that critics would be attacking them for doing nothing.
But bearing the gold standard of free speech internationally also means special obligations for the United States. What some may see as a procedural response to a parolee's misstep may instead echo worldwide as mere subterfuge for circumventing our basic freedoms.
U.S. District Judge Christina Snyder has scheduled an evidentiary hearing for Nov. 9 as the next step in Youssef's saga. The judge is walking a fine line. Move too quickly and the matter will be seen as appeasement to those who want Youssef kept in jail and as a repudiation of centuries of U.S. free-speech protection. Move too slowly and Youssef likely remains jailed — with the same effect.
The challenge for Judge Snyder and for prosecutors is to keep the process moving, as transparently as possible, and to separate the parole issues from the political ones.